200 Biochemistry Questions and Answers for Medical Students

  1. Carbohydrate is aldehyde and ketone derivative of __________ and is a hydrate of carbon.
  2. Monosaccharide are colorless crystalline solids that are soluble in _______ and insoluble in ________.
  3. _______ have the highest organo-elective property. It is the property responsible for the sweetness of monosaccharide.
  4.  _________ is the only monosaccharide without at least asymmetric carbon.
  5. Two mirror images of chiral molecule are called ___________.
  6. Glyceraldehyde contains only one chiral centre thus have _______ optical isomers.
  7. A molecule with n-chiral centre can have ______ stereoisomers.
  8. ___________ is a carbon atom that is attached to four different types of atoms.
  9. The presence of an asymmetric carbon atom is often the features that cause __________.
  10. OH of the fifth carbon of D-glucose are at the _______ direction.
  11. For the ketoses, the ______ and _______ sugars are designated by inserting “ul” into the name.
  12. D-glucose and D-mannose are epimers due to the difference in carbon _____. D-glucose and D-galactose are epimers due to difference in carbon ________.
  13. ______ and _______ are compounds that can be gotten from aldehyde and ketone respectively when they react with alcohol.
  14. Two compounds not mirror images of each other are called _______.
  15. ______ is a collective term for carbohydrate that has a chemical structure that includes a six-membered ring consisting of five carbon atoms and one oxygen atom.
  16. _____ is an aldehyde and _____ is a ketone.
  17. The hemiacetal and hemiketal atoms are known as ______ carbon.
  18. _______ is a heterocyclic organic compound consisting of a five-membered aromatic ring with four carbon atoms and one oxygen.
  19. When the two anomeric carbon of a disaccharide reacts together, they form a ________ sugar.
  20. _______ and _____ are monosaccharides which contains a single and different type of monomeric unit units respectively.
  21. Termites digest cellulose because they have the protozoan called _____ that secretes _______.
  22. Starch is a mixture of two polymers; _____ and ______.
  23. _______ is a 2→1 β-linked polymer of fructose.
  24. _____ is a tetrasaccharide consisting of two α-D-galactose units, one α-D-glucose unit and one β-D-fructose unit, sequentially linked as gal (α1→6) gal (α1→6) glu (α1→2 β) fru.
  25. ______, ______ and _____ are non-digestible short chain carbohydrate or oligosaccharides.
  26. Raffinose can be hydrolyzed to D-galactose and sucrose by ______ enzyme.
  27. Glycogen shows a branch at each _____ units of glucose.
  28. Anomeric carbon in glucose is _____ carbon and in fructose ______ carbon.
  29. _____ are the most abundant biomolecule on earth and also serve as the major source of the food supply.
  30. Polyhydric alcoholic compounds contain more than one OH group situated on different carbons.
  31. The calorific value of carbohydrates has been put at _______ to form ______.
  32. Monosaccharide are soluble in _____ but not soluble in ______.
  33. Disaccharide form when _______ undergo a dehydration reaction (condensation reaction); they are held together by ________ bond.
  34. ________ is the most common disaccharide which is composed of the monomeric unit of _______.
  35. Monosaccharide are classified based on ______ and __________.
  36. During the condensation reaction or dehydration synthesis of the disaccharide, the ______ combines with the ______ releasing a molecule of _____ and forming a ______.
  37. The covalent bond formed between a carbohydrate molecule and another molecule is known as a ________ and can be of the _____ or the ____ type.
  38. _____ is the storage form of ______ in humans and other vertebrates.
  39. ______ is the most abundant natural polymer.
  40. Cellulose is made up of _____ monomers that are linked by ______ bonds.
  41. The carbon chains of monosaccharide are unbranched and linked by ___bonds.
  42. Glucose is known as ____ from the fact that it rotates plane-polarized light in a clockwise (dextrorotatory) direction.
  43. Fructose is referred to as ______ because it has a specific rotation that is strongly levorotatory.
  44. The D/L configuration of aldohexose is based on the orientation of the ____ at position 5.
  45. When two sugars differ around one carbon atom they are ______.
  46. Isomeric kinds of monosaccharide that differ only in their chemical arrangement in the hemiacetal or hemiketal carbon atoms are known as ____.
  47. The α and β anomers of D-glucose inter-converts in solvent solution by a technique known as _____.
  48. Trehalose is a _____ sugar formed from _____ units joined by a ____ bond.
  49. The systemic name of lactose is _______.
  50. Isomaltose is a disaccharide similar to maltose, but with a ____ linkage.
  51. Stachyose is ____ consisting of _____, _______ and ______ units sequentially linked as _________.
  52. ______ is a trisaccharide consisting of three glucose molecules linked with α1, 4-glycosidic bond.
  53. ______ is formed by thousands of alternating units of N-acetyl glucosamine and glucuronic acid and is an example of ________.
  54. Glucoronic acid are connected by ________ linkage.
  55. Amylopectin give ______ colour with iodine.
  56. Amylopectin shows aa branch at each _____ units of glucose.
  57. Cellulose is a linear ______ polysaccharide in which glucose units are linked by ______ bonds.
  58. Partial hydrolysis of cellulose with strong mineral acids yields _____.
  59. Chitin is made up of a modified β-D-glucose called ______ with _____ bonds.
  60. Glycogen is a branched ______ polysaccharide composed of ____ units linked by _____ bonds at the ____ chains and _____ bonds at branches
  61. ______ and _____ isomerism are the two types of stereoisomers.
  62. The number of possible isomers in a monosaccharide depends on the number of ______.
  63. The basis for the ring formation of monosaccharide is the fact that _____ can rewet with an alcohol to form a ____.
  64. ______ are a group of related heteropolysaccharide consisting of alternating units of _____ and ______.
  65. ________ are chemical reactions of carbohydrate.
  66. Carbohydrates undergo dehydration reaction with the elimination of ____ molecules when reacted with ______ in the presence of heat.
  67. On dehydration, carbohydrates give _____ or its derivative that condenses with _____ to form a coloured product.
  68. _________ test is a general test for all carbohydrates in which ____ and ______ react slower.
  69. The molisch reagent dehydrates _____ to form furfural and hexoses to form ______.
  70. In molisch tests, furfural reacts with α-naphthol present in the test reagent to produce a ______.
  71. Under _____ conditions, reducing sugars _______ to enediol.
  72. Reducing sugar in an alkaline medium reduce ______ present in Fehling’s solution to give ______.
  73. Sucrose does not react with Fehling’s reagent as it is a ______
  74. ______ is more stable than Fehling’s reagent in differentiating between reducing and non-reducing sugars.
  75. Benedict’s reagent contains blue copper sulphate which is reduced to ______ by _____.
  76. Barfoid test is used to differentiate between _____ and _____.
  77. In the osazone test, lactose gives ______ shaped crystals, mannose gives _____ shaped crystals and monosaccharide give ______ shaped crystals.
  78. The carbonyl group in sugar can be reduced by a variety of reagents such as ____ and ______ to ______.
  79. Sugar on oxidation gives _____. Glucose gives ______, _____ and _____.
  80. Seliwanoff’s test distinguish between ______ and _____. When heated ketoses are more rapidly dehydrated than _____.
  81. Seliwanoff’s test reagent dehydrates ketohexoses to form ______ that further reacts with resorcinol present in the test reagent to produce ____ product within ____ minutes.
  82. Iodine test is a qualitative test for the detection of _____.
  83. Iodine reacts with starch, dextrin, glycogen to give ______.
  84. Agar is made up of ______ and _____ derivative of ether-linked between ____ and ____.
  85. Mucopolysaccharides are made up of repeating units of sugar derivatives, namely _____ and ____. They are commonly known as _____-.
  86. Mucopolysaccharides are sometimes found in combination with protein to form _____ or ______.
  87. Hyaluronic acid is sulfate free _______.
  88. Blood group substance contain _____, ____, _____ and _____.
  89. _______ is an enzyme that breaks β 1-4 linkages of hyaluronic acid.
  90. Dermatin sulfate contains repeating units of _____ and _____.
  91. ______ is the only GAG present intracellular. In granules of most cells and also in lung, liver and skin.
  92. _____ is the only GAG with no uronic acid.
  93. Lipids comprise of very heterogeneous groups of compounds which are insoluble in ___ but soluble in _______.
  94. The nonpolar nature of lipids is due to the fact that a large portion of the molecule contains only _____.
  95. Based on the chemical nature, lipids are classified as _____, _____ and _____ lipids.
  96. Fatty acids are obtained from ______.
  97. ____ and ____ are known as essential fatty acids.
  98. _____ are biological molecules that are insoluble in water but soluble in non-polar solvents.
  99. Lipids are classified as _____, _______ and _______.
  100. Derived lipid are substances derived from simple lipids and compound lipids by ________.
  101. Compound lipids are esters of fatty acids and alcohol-containing other groups in addition to _________.
  102. Steroid structure is composed of ______ carbon atoms, bonded in _______.
  103. Steroids have four fused rings make up called ___________.
  104. ______ are steroids containing one or more hydroxyl groups.
  105. Cholesterol possesses _______ nucleus, has a OH group at ____ and an unsaturated double bond between ____ and ____.
  106. Cholesterol is used to synthesize bile salt that emulsifies and enhance absorption of _____.
  107. In the epidermis of the skin, UV rays of sunshine change 7-dehydrocholesterol to ________.
  108. ______ are the main constituent of cell membranes, they are composed of ____ chains attached to a _____ or _____ backbone.
  109. Phospholipids are _______ in nature.
  110. All ______ contain or are derivatives of phosphatic acid (PA).
  111. ______ are the most abundant of the cell membrane.
  112. Lecithin is the major storage form for choline inside the brain from which neurotransmitter _______ is synthesized.
  113. ______ plays a dual function of preventing alveolar collapse during the breathing cycle and protection of the lungs from injuries.
  114. Lecithin in addition to ______ and ______ are the constituents of surfactants.
  115. _____ leads to respiratory distress syndrome which is a common cause of neonatal morbidity.
  116. Defects in the biosynthesis of ______ cause respiratory distress syndrome (RDS).
  117. Phosphatidylethanolamine is structurally identical with phosphatidylcholine with the exception that the base _____ replaces ______.
  118. Cardiolipin is a ______ glycerol formed by ______ acids attached together by glycerol.
  119. The combination of sphingosine and fatty acid is called ________.
  120. The three principal kinds of lipids found in most membranes are; ______. _____ and ______.
  121. Amphipathic compounds contain _______ and _______ components.
  122. ______ assemble into micelles and bilayers structures in which the ______ tails are oriented away from the aqueous environment.
  123. The most satisfactory model of membrane structure is _______.
  124. _________ is the only amino acids involved in protein synthesis in humans.
  125. ______ group of amino acid is the variable radical group that is different for every amino acid.
  126. Amino acid behaves like salt because they have both _____ and _____ group.
  127. The COOH group and group of amino acids exist as _____ and _____ respectively.
  128. _______ is the only amino acid with an alpha-amino group that is not a primary amine.
  129. _______ is the only amino acid with a sulfhydryl group.
  130. ______ is the simplest amino acid with the only hydrogen as its side chain.
  131. All amino acids except _______ have four different groups attached to the alpha carbon.
  132. All amino acids found in protein have the ____ configuration.
  133. _____ and _____ have a second asymmetric carbon in addition to their α-carbon.
  134. The α-1,6-bonds of amylopectin are hydrolyzed by a ­_______.
  135. The change in optical rotation is called _________.
  136. ______ is the enzyme that helps to clear lipidemia after a fatty meal.
  137. ______ is the only GAG with no uronic acid.
  138. ______ is the PH where the +ve and –ve amino acid equal to each other.
  139. Peptide bond formation is a ______ reaction.
  140. Amino acid unit in a peptide is called the residue.
  141. Lipids assemble into _____ and _____.
  142. Cholesterol has an OH group at _____ and an unsaturated double bond between ____ and _____.
  143. Phosphatidylinositol contains ____ on C1 and ______ on C2 of the glycerol backbone.
  144. The combination of sphingosine and fatty acid is called ______.
  145. Amino acids join together to form polymer chains called _____ or longer chains called either ______ or ______.
  146. _____ amino acid is involved in protein synthesis in humans.
  147. Amino acids behave like salts because they have both ______ and _____ group and exist as a ______ ion.
  148. The pH point at which the concentration of zwitterions is highest; concentration of cationic and anionic form is equal is called _____. The point is definite for _____ for every α-amino acid.
  149. Electrolytes when dissolved in water split up into two or more electrical charged particles called ______ and the process is called ______.
  150. ______ are solutions that resist changes in the pH of a solution when acid or alkali is added. It has both ____ and _____ component.
  151. When the salt component and the acid component are equal; _____ of the solution is equal to pKa.
  152. Two amino acid molecules can be covalently joined together through a substituted amine linkage called ______.
  153. When a peptide is formed, the amino acid becomes a _______.
  154. When two amino acids form a dipeptide through a peptide bond, it is a type of ______.
  155. An amino acid that has been incorporated into peptides are termed _____.
  156. All peptides except _____ have a _____ and _____ residue at the end of the peptide.
  157. The identical unit of an oligomer is called _____.
  158. Proteins that contain only amino acid residue and no other chemical groups are called ______. Those that contain permanently associated chemical compounds are called ______.
  159. The non-amino acid part of the conjugated protein is called _____.
  160. Nucleotides are monomeric precursors of ______.
  161. ______ specify the sequence of mRNA molecules which in turn specify the sequence of proteins.
  162. The main function of DNA is _______. The function of RNA is _________.
  163. A nucleotide is made up of _______, _______ and _______.
  164. Purine bases are heterocyclic compounds consisting of a ______ and _____ fused together.
  165. Adenine is named as _____ and guanine named as ______.
  166. Pentose sugars present in nucleic acids are _____ and ____. They are found in their ______ form.
  167. Nucleosides are formed when _____ are attached to the _____ sugar by a _____ bond between _____ carbon of the pentose sugar and N9 of a _____ or N1 of a _____.
  168. N-glycosyl bond of nucleosides is formed by removal of ______ from pentose and ______ from the base.
  169. The esterification of nucleotides occurs at the ___ or _____ hydroxyl group of the _____ sugar.
  170. Most of the nucleoside phosphate involved in biological function are ____ phosphate.
  171. Nucleotides and nucleic acids absorb light at a wavelength of ___ nm.
  172. _____ linkage may be formed between 3’ and 5’ positions of the ribose group to form ______.
  173. ______ facilitates the bond between phosphate and proteins.
  174. Cyclic AMP is an adenine nucleotide containing _____ group which is esterified to both the ____ positions of the sugar moiety.
  175. The enzyme ______ is used to derive NADPH. _____ is used to derive FADH.
  176. Enzymes involved in anabolic pathways that create large molecules use ____. Enzymes involved in the breakdown of molecules use ______.
  177. Coenzyme A consists of a ______ group linked to the vitamin _____.
  178. A molecule of coenzyme A carrying an acyl group is referred to as _____.
  179. When coA is not attached to an acyl group, it is usually referred to as ____ or ____.
  180. The genetic information found in DNA is copied and transmitted to daughter cells through ______.
  181. The flow of information from DNA to RNA and to protein is termed _____.
  182. DNA is a polymer of _______ covalently linked by _____ bonds.
  183. DNA strands are held together by ______ bonds between the bases of adjacent strands.
  184. An enzyme called _______ transcribes DNA into _____.
  185. In DNA, the base sequence is always written from the ____ end to ____. It is called the _____ chain.
  186. DNA consist of two ____- chains twisted around one another in a ____ handed double helix. The chains are paired in a ______ manner.
  187. There are ____ hydrogen bonds between A and T. Hydrogen bond between C and G are _____.
  188. Circular DNA is _____ coiled.
  189. Sucrose reacts with Fehling’s reagent. True/False
  190. Which of the following test is used to differentiate between monosaccharide and disaccharide? (a) Molisch test (b) Benedict test (c) Fehling’s test (d) Barfoid test.
  191. Glucose on oxidation with sulphuric acid yield _____. (a) Glucanic acid (b) Gluconic acid (c) Glucuronic acid (d) NOTA.
  192. Which of the following test for carbohydrate distinguish between aldose and ketose____? (a) Benedict test (b) Sliwanoff’s test (c) Molisch test (d) Brafoid test.
  193. ____ is an enzyme that breaks beta 1-4 linkages of hyaluronic acid.
  194. Which of the following is the most abundant GAG in the body? (a) Hyaluronic acid (b) Heparin (c) Chondroitin-4-sulphate (d) Dermatan sulphate.
  195. Which of the following GAF is present intracellularly? (a) Heparin (b) Hyaluronic acid (c) Dermatan sulphate (d) Chondroitin-4-sulphate.
  196. Glycolipids do not have a phosphate group. True/False.
  197. _____ is the unsaturated form of stearic acid.
  198. Respiratory distress syndrome is due to a defect in the biosynthesis of _____.
  199. Protein that contains two identical polypeptide chain is called _____.
  200. _____are identical unit of polysaccharide present in the protein.

Medical Biochemistry Answers

  1. Polyhydric alcohol
  2. Water and Non-polar solvent
  3. Fructose
  4. Dihydroxyacetone
  5. Enantiomers
  6. Two
  7. stereoisomers
  8. Asymmetric carbon (chiral carbon)
  9. Chirality in molecule
  10. Right direction
  11. 4-C and 5-C
  12. Carbon-2 and Carbon-4
  13. Hemiacetals and Hemiketals
  14. Diastereomers
  15. Pyranoses
  16. Glucose
  17. Anomeric carbon
  18. Furan
  19. Non-reducing sugar
  20. Homopolysaccharide and Heteropolsaccharides
  21. Tryconympher and Cellulase
  22. Amylose and Amylopectin
  23. Inulin
  24. Stachyose
  25. Raffinose, Stachyose and Verbascose
  26. α-galactosidase (α-Gal)
  27. 8-10 units
  28. C-1 and C-2
  29. Carbohydrate
  30. More than one
  31. 1g of carbohydrate to form 4 calories of energy.
  32. Water but not soluble in organic solvents that are non-polar.
  33. Two monosaccharides. They are held together by a covalent bond.
  34. Sucrose (table sugar). Composed of monomers of glucose and fructose.
  35. The position of their carbonyl group and the number of carbons in the backbone.
  36. Hydroxyl group of one monosaccharide combines with the hydrogen of another monosaccharide releasing a molecule of water and forming a covalent bond.
  37. Glycosidic bond and can be of the alpha or the beta type.
  38. Glycogen is the storage form of glucose.
  39. Cellulose
  40. Glucose monomers and linked by β 1-4 bonds.
  41. Single covalent bonds.
  42. Dextrose
  43. Levulose
  44. Hydroxyl at position 5.
  45. Epimers
  46. Anomers
  47. Mutarotation
  48. Non-reducing sugar formed from two glucose units joined by a 1-1 alpha bond.
  49. Β-D-galactopyranosyl – (1-4) – D-glucose.
  50. Alpha – (1-6) linkage.
  51. Tretrasaccharide consisting of two alpha-D-galactose units, one alpha-D-glucose unit and one beta-D-fructose units sequentially linked as gal (alpha 1-6) gal (alpha 1-6) glu (alpha 1- 2 beta).
  52. Linked with alpha-1, 4-glycosidic bonds.
  53. Hyaluronic acid. Example of heteropolysaccharide.
  54. Beta-1, 3 linkages.
  55. Red violet colour with iodine.
  56. 24-30
  57. Homo polysaccharide. Glucose units are linked by the beta-1,4-glycosidic bond.
  58. Cellobiose
  59. N-acetylglucosamine with beta (1-4) glycosidic bond.
  60. Homo polysaccharide composed of D-glucose units linked by alpha-1,4-glycosidic bond at the linear chains and alpha-1,6-glycosidic bonds at branches.
  61. Optical and geometrical isomerism.
  62. Asymmetric carbon atoms.
  63. The aldehyde can react with an alcohol to form a hemiacetal.
  64. Alternating units of uronic acids and amino sugars.
  65. Dehydration, reduction of carbonyl groups, reduction, oxidation and iodine test.
  66. Three water molecules when reacted with concentrated Sulphur acid in the presence of heat.
  67. Gives furfural that condenses with alpha-naphthol.
  68. Molisch test is a general test for all carbohydrates in which disaccharide and polysaccharides react slower.
  69. Pentose to form furfural and hexoses to form 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.
  70. Purple colour.
  71. Tautomerize to enediol.
  72. Reduce copper ions present in Fehling’s solution to give an orange to red precipitation.
  73. Non-reducing sugar.
  74. Benedict test.
  75. Red copper (i) oxide by aldehydes.
  76. Monosaccharide and disaccharide.
  77. Lactose = powder-puff shaped crystals. Mannose = sunflower shaped crystals. Monosaccharide gives needle-shaped crystals.
  78. Hydrogen and platinum to alcohol.
  79. Sugar on oxidation gives acid. Glucose gives gluconic acid, glucaric acid and glucuronic acid.
  80. Aldose and Ketose sugars. Ketoses are more readily dehydrated than aldoses.
  81. 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. It produces a red product within 2 minutes.
  82. Polysaccharide
  83. Coloured complex.
  84. D-galactose and L-galactose. Linked between C-3 and C-6.
  85. Amino sugar and uronic sugar. They are commonly known as glycosaminoglycans.
  86. Mucoprotein or proteoglycans.
  87. Glycosaminoglycans (GAG)
  88. N-acetylgalactosamine, galactose, fructose and salic acid.
  89. Hyaluronidase
  90. L-iduronic acid and N-acetyl glucosamine-4-sulfate.
  91. Heparin
  92. Keratin sulfate.
  93. Water but soluble in non-organic solvents or solvents of low polarity.
  94. Carbon or hydrogen.
  95. Simple lipids, compound or complex lipids and derived lipids.
  96. Hydrolysis of fats.
  97. Linoleic and linolenic acid.
  98. Lipids
  99. Simple, compound, complex and derived lipid.
  100. Hydrolysis
  101. The alcohol and a fatty acid.
  102. Seventeen carbon atoms, bonded in four fused rings.
  103. Cyclopentanoperhydrophenathrene nucleus or sterane ring.
  104. Sterols
  105. Cyclopentanoperhydrophenathrene nucleus has an OH group at C3 an unsaturated double bond between C5 and C6.
  106. Fats in the intestine.
  107. Cholecalciferol
  108. Fatty acids chains attached to a glycerol or sphingosine backbone.
  109. Amphipathic
  110. Glycerophospholipids
  111. Phosphatidylcholine (lecithin).
  112. Acetylcholine
  113. Surfactant
  114. Lecithin in addition to phosphatidylglycerol, cholesterol and surfactant proteins A, B and C.
  115. Low level of surfactant.
  116. Dipalmitoyl lecithin.
  117. Ethanolamine replaces choline.
  118. 2 phosphatidic acids.
  119. Ceramide
  120. Cholesterol and phosphoglycerides
  121. Both hydrophilic (lipophilic) and hydrophobic (lipophobic).
  122. Hydrophobic.
  123. Fluid-mosaic model.
  124. Alpha-amino acids.
  125. The R group
  126. The acidic and basic group
  127. Anion and cation respectively. A special name is Zwitter ions.
  128. Proline
  129. Cysteine
  130. Glycine
  131. Glycine attached to the alpha carbon.
  132. L-configuration
  133. Isoleucine and threonine
  134. Alpha-1,6-glucosidase
  135. Mutarotation
  136. Lipoprotein lipase
  137. Keratin sulphate
  138. Isoelectric point
  139. Condensation
  140. Residue
  141. Micelles and bilayers.
  142. C3. C5 and C6.
  143. Stearic acid on C1 and arachidonic acid on C2.
  144. Ceramide
  145. Peptide or linger chains called either polypeptide or proteins.
  146. Alpha-amino
  147. Acidic group and basic group. Exist as a dipolar.
  148. Isoelectric point. The point is definite.
  149. The process is called ionization.
  150. Buffers. It has both acid and salt.
  151. The pH of the solution equals pKa.
  152. Peptide bond.
  153. Amino acid residue.
  154. Condensation reaction
  155. Residues
  156. Cyclic peptides have an amino group (N-terminal) and a carboxyl group (C-terminal)
  157. Protomer
  158. Simple proteins. Conjugate proteins.
  159. Prosthetic group
  160. Nucleic acids
  161. Genes
  162. DNA for information storage. RNA for protein synthesis.
  163. Nitrogenous base (purine or adenine), pentose sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) and a phosphate group.
  164. Pyrimidine ring and an imidazole ring
  165. 2-amino-6-oxypurine
  166. Ribose sugar and 2-deoxyribose sugar which are present in their beta-furanose form.
  167. When the nitrogenous base is attached to the pentose sugar by a beta-N-glycosidic (glycosyl) bond between first carbon of the pentose sugar and N9 of a purine or N1 of a pyrimidine.
  168. Hydroxyl groups from pentose and hydrogen atom from the base.
  169. The fifth or third hydroxyl group of the pentose sugar.
  170. 5’
  171. 260nm
  172. Phosphodiester linkage. Cyclic nucleotides
  173. Kinase
  174. One phosphate group is esterified to both the 3’ and 5’ positions.
  175. Niacin is use to derive NADH and riboflavin is used to derive FADH.
  176. Enzymes involved in the breakdown of molecules use the analogue NADH.
  177. Coenzyme A consists of a beta-mercaploethylamine group linked to the vitamin pantotheric acid through an amide linkage and 3’ phosphorylated ADP.
  178. Acyl-CoA
  179. coASH or HSCoA
  180. DNA replication
  181. The central dogma of molecular biology
  182. DNA is a polymer of 4-deoxyribonucleoside monophosphates covalently linked by 3’ – 5’ – phosphodiester bonds.
  183. Hydrogen bonds
  184. RNA polymerase transcribes DNA into mRNA.
  185. 5’ and to the 3’ end. It is called the polarity of the DNA chain.
  186. Twisted around one another in a right-handed double helix. The chains are paired in an antiparallel manner.
  187. Two hydrogen bonds between A and T. Three hydrogen bonds between C and G.
  188. Supercoiled
  189. False
  190. Brafoid test
  191. NOTA
  192. Seliwanoff’s test
  193. Hyaluronidase
  194. Chondroitin-4-sulphate
  195. Heparin
  196. True
  197. Oleic acid
  198. Dipalmitoyl lecithin
  199. Oligomers
  200. protomers

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